Modern oncology with its improved options holds out prospects for many novel curative and palliative procedures. By adopting a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis, treatment and follow-up care these prospects can become reality, with radiology playing a pivotal role. This role encompasses imaging diagnostics for all tumour entities as well as diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Therefore the chief tasks to be accomplished in a radiology setting include diagnosis, differential diagnosis, staging of tumours, and participation in deciding on and planning treatment, image-based intervention and follow-up examinations. For a long time now, computed tomography (CT) has represented the gold standard for many of these tasks. The novel modalities of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and CT fluoroscopy will no doubt further enhance quality, thus expanding the fields of application.